Although the cleansing could refer to literal cleansing from physical stain or contamination, all NT uses refer to cleansing either from the "stain" of sin, an "inward contamination" (Heb 1:3+, 2Pe 1:9+) or ritual cleansing as prescribed in the law of Moses (Mk 1:44+, Lk 2:22+, Lk 5:14+) or by Jewish customs (Jn 2:6+). The resurrection, glorification, ascension and enthronement of Christ at the right hand of God is meant to make you confident in the hour of trial and in the hour of death that the purification of your sins is sure, real and sufficient to give you unhindered entrance into heaven. gladdening Light, of his pure glory poured. Sitting at God's right hand, is also a way of saying that Christ's saving work is done and that he is now in the place of highest honor. Greek: os on (PAPMSN) apaugasma tes doxes kai charakter tes hupostaseos autou, pheron (PAPMSN) te ta panta to rhemati tes dunameos autou, katharismon ton hamartion poiesamenos (AMPMSN) ekathisen (3SAAI) en dexia tes megalosunes en hupselois. And so he died, because he affirmed, amid the assumed horror of his judges, that he was the Christ, the Son of God. (Luke 2:19), Rhema in the NT can exhibit several nuances of meaning depending on the context --. An illustration of this use of phero is found in the Septuagint (LXX) where Moses says, "I alone am not able to carry (phero) all this people, because it is too burdensome for me,â (Nu 11:14) (Comment: Here phero has in it the idea of the responsibility of the government and guidance of Israel). Do you need grace to make it today? 1 In the past God spoke to our ancestors through the prophets at many times and in various ways, 2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom also he made the universe. The rulers had heard the multitudes proclaim Him as âSon of Davidâ when He rode into Jerusalem. (Ps 110:1), While on earth our Lord applied the Psalm to Himself stating that. Charakter conveys the idea of exact correspondence as when Jesus said that "He who has seen Me has seen the Father" (Jn 14:9), He who had seen Jesus had seen the Father because Jesus is the exact representation, the exact expression of the Father's attributes, nature, etc so that all that God is, Jesus is, and yet two distinct Persons of the Godhood. Many Jews had a superstitious or idolatrous respect for angels, because they had received the law and other tidings of the Divine will by their ministry. Illustrious though they were, they have receded into the shadows. Only the Messiah could sit at the right hand of Jehovah God) âThen how does David in the Spirit call Him âLord,â saying, âThe Lord said to my Lord, âSit at My right hand, until I put Thine enemies beneath Thy feetâ â? Pliny writes to tell the Emperor that the Christians of Asia Minor were accustomed to meet to sing praise to Christ as God. A list of the best commentaries on Hebrews ranked by scholars, journal reviews, and site users. This term, as used by our Lord, and as understood by the Jews, not only signified divine relationship, but divine equality. a promise (Lk 2:29 "Now Lord, Thou dost let Thy bond-servant depart In peace, according to Thy word", Lk 1:38 And Mary said, "Behold, the bondslave of the Lord; be it done to me according to your word." Then he sat down at the right side of God, the Great One in heaven. So too we see God the Father by seeing Jesus for they are one God. These are energized by the sun's radiance, but they are not what the sun is. The Pulpit Commentary writes that apaugasma "is, so to speak, begotten of the source, and of one substance with it, and yet distinguishable from it; being that through which its glory is made manifest, and through which it enlightens all things. (Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament), The import of the use of the word katharismos would not be lost on the first century Jewish readers, who would be familiar with the cleansing ritual on the Day of Atonement (see use in Ex 30:10 below) as described in Leviticus 16 (Lev 16:29+) which concludes with the statement that "on this day that atonement shall be made for you to cleanse (or purify) (LXX uses katharizo the root of katharismos) you You shall be clean (LXX = katharizo ) from all your sins before the LORD. ALT: who being [the] outshining of His glory and [the] exact expression of His essence, and sustaining all the [things] by the word of His power, having Himself made by Himself a purification [or, purgation] of our sins, sat down at [the] right hand of the Majesty on high, Amplified: He is the sole expression of the glory of God [the Light-being, the out-raying or radiance of the divine], and He is the perfect imprint and very image of [Godâs] nature, upholding and maintaining and guiding and propelling the universe by His mighty word of power. Here is a wonderful thought. At that moment I absolutely did not believe Jesus upholds all things by the word of His power! It is also a place of delight for the psalmist says. âIn him all things are held togetherâ (Col 1:17), that is, continue to hold together. Jesus is distinct from God the Father and yet identical with Him. Thus it was necessary that the apostle should insist, not only on Christ's being the Creator of all things, and therefore of angels themselves, but as being the risen and exalted Messiah in human nature, to whom angels, authorities, and powers are made subject. It does things. His dignity is still further elaborated in the words which follow. The theological sense, person, is later than the apostolic age. So when life's problems are baffling, when you face some Red Sea impossibility, call upon the wonder-working God who upholds all things. 3 who [the Son] being the brightness [radiance, effulgence] of His [God’s] glory . But Christ came and purged them. And thus he was able to say, "He that bath seen me hath seen the Father." Commentary on Hebrews 1:1-3. (iv) The sustaining power belongs to Jesus. Jn 2:6+ Now there were six stone waterpots set there for the Jewish custom of purification, containing twenty or thirty gallons each. Yet the holy Christ, incapable of sin, stooped to purge our sins. However, the content of the book, including the frequent references to the Hebrew Scriptures, makes it clear that he was writing to Jewish Sin has made a great change in the world for the worse, and Christ will make a great change in it for the better. These early Christians had a tremendous grip of the doctrine of providence. God hasn't given Jesus something. Rhema refers to any sound produced by the voice which has a definite meaning. word of God. âBut this one, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, sat down at the right hand of God, from now on waiting until his enemies are made a footstool for his feet. Psalm 110:1 is quoted 5 times in the NT -- Mk 12:36, Lk 20:42; Acts 2:34, Heb 1:13 and Heb 10:12. Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers. Meditate on the Biblical reasoning that Christ reigns today in heaven because while on earth He made purification for sins once for all time and available to all who call upon the Name of the Lord (see note Romans 10:3). Hebrews 3:1-6. He stood, with holy trembling, bearing the sacrificial blood, before the blazing mercy seat. It is at the time of writing this review the most recent major commentary (vol 1 published in 1991, vol 2 in 2000). When He had made purification of sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high. (Collected writings of W. E. Vine), The seated posture is one of of rest and yet in His exalted state Jesus is still bearing on all things toward their destined consummation, and is still dealing with sin as the Great High Priest, saving believing sinners in His precious blood and cleansing saints from the daily defilement of sin. This 59 part expository study of Hebrews was preached at Flagstaff Christian Fellowship in 2003-05. Oh, this wondrous Word of Godâthe very climax of the Godheadâthe gathering up of every blessed attribute in all its infinity of glory! (Compare to) But Mary treasured up all these things (rhema), pondering them in her heart. ", Purification (2512)(katharismos from from katharizo = to cleanse and our English word catharsis which Webster's defines as purification or purgation that brings about spiritual renewal or release from tension) describes the process of making clean, cleansing, purifying, freeing from filth. But, how much greater things are said of Christ by the Father! It can mean effulgence, the light which shines forth, or it can mean reflection, the light which is reflected. © 2021 Christianity.com. Initial impressions of Hebrews might suggest that the writer is detached from any context. In Mt 22:43, 44, 45 Christ specifically applies Psalm 110:1 to Himself claiming that He is not just the son of David but David's Lord. The sins of others, especially of our relations, should be warnings to us. MacArthur - This truth must have seemed especially remarkable to those to whom the book of Hebrews was first written. Audio and manuscripts are available for each lesson. Hold on to Jesus -- you can be sure He is holding on to you (whether you "feel" like it or not)! And fear came on all those living around them; and all these matters [rhema] were being talked about in all the hill country of Judea. They looked upon them as mediators between God and men, and some went so far as to pay them a kind of religious homage or worship. ', Right (1188) (dexios) as opposed to left and when giving or receiving, preference is given to right hand (Christ is God's literal "Right hand Man") and so the right-hand position is the place of honor. It is not preceded by the definite article, which makes the term highly descriptive of character or nature. Jesus made but one sacrifice when He offered Himself and because His sacrifice is unblemished and spotless (1Pe 1:18, 19-notes), He can purify our sins, something that all the Old Testament sacrifices together could never accomplish, The writer of Hebrews goes to great lengths to explain Christ's sacrificial role and how His sacrifice made the Old Covenant sacrifices obsoleteâ¦. Large petitions with thee bring; Coextensive with God, of the same nature as God; thus is Jesus Christ. from now on THE SON OF MAN WILL BE SEATED AT THE RIGHT HAND of the power OF GOD.â (Lk 22:69). Later it came to mean the impression itself, usually engraved, cut in, or stamped on in the form of a character, a letter, a mark or a sign. In reading it, we first hear the roar of the mob and the calm decision of the throne; and then our attention is centered on him who comes forward, bearing the divine autograph to the decree which declares him Son. Ex 30:10 âAnd Aaron shall make atonement on its horns once a year (Yom Kippur); he shall make atonement on it with the blood of the sin offering of atonement (Lxx = "the blood of purification" = katharismos) once a year throughout your generations. How lowly did He become to purge away our sins, and that by Himself, too, using His own body to be the means, by His sufferings, of taking away our guilt. In order to maintain and guide the universe, He only has to speakâ¦ but in order to put away our sin once for all, He had to die on the cross of Calvary. They cannot be separated. Do we worship him enough? And He said, "I Myself will make all My goodness pass before youâ¦ butâ¦ "You cannot see My face, for no man can see Me and live!" There they stood, before the sight of God, as already existent in all their hideousness. 3 He reflects the glory of God and bears the very stamp of his nature, upholding the universe by his word of power. Because He upholds all things by the Word of His power. In Ruth 1:12 ("Return, my daughters! HEBREWS IVP New Testament Commentary Series. Not only does Jesus sit in the place of honor, but He occupies the place of safety. (Ps 16:11-note). Reprinted by permission. 39:5 ("Behold, Thou hast made my days as handbreadths, And my lifetime [Lxx = hupostasis ~ my existence] as nothing in Thy sight, Surely every man at his best is a mere breath. Jesus sustains all things by His Word, and that Word has a divine power. It seems strange so few commentaries written from a Torah-perspective have been forthcoming from the pool of Messianic teachers in our time. Oh, this is wondrous love! When, on the morning of his resurrection, our Lord met the frightened women, he said, "I ascend unto my Father and your Father, and my God and your God." The Saviour has done much to make all men his friends, yet he has enemies. Christ shall go on conquering and to conquer. Spurgeon - Shade your eyes, for you cannot look upon this wondrous sight without being dazzled by it. How this flies in the face of the modern teaching on self-sufficiency. In Hebrews 3, Paul admonishes us to hold fast to what Jesus taught us (see also Revelation 3:11). God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, has in these last days spoken to us by His Son,. Paul adds that Jesus "is before all things and in Him all things hold together." Cf. "O come let us adore Him" "fixing our eyes on Jesus" (Heb 12:2-note). Moulton and Milligan report its use as a legal term. The primary sense of hupostasis or substance is something which stands underneath; foundation, ground of hope or confidence, and so, assurance itself. And the death-cries of martyrs must have familiarized the heathen mind with the homage paid to Christ by Christians. But, as he used the words, they meant infinitely more of himself than they could ever mean of man, however saintly or childlike. Are you listening? 1 In times past, God spoke in partial and various ways to our ancestors through the prophets; 2 in these last days, he spoke to us through a son, whom he made heir of all things and through whom he created the universe, a. But we may reverently accept the fact, so repeatedly emphasized, that Jesus is "the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father" (John i. i8). 'A Jesus Nut' - By Vernon C. Grounds - A Navy pilot was describing his complex helicopter to his parents one day. During his earthly life he was constantly met by expressive acts of homage, which, unlike Peter in the house of Cornelius, he did not repress. ), The writer of Hebrews obviously considers this teaching about the position of Christ Jesus our Great High Priest at the right hand of His Father as very important for he records this truth four times, at the beginning, in the middle and toward the end of his epistleâ¦, Hebrews 1:3 And He is the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature, and upholds all things by the word of His power. 2 This is what the ancients were commended for. To Him be the glory forever. The author emphasizes this truth later writing that "now once at the consummation of the ages He has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself." Jn 3:25+ Therefore there arose a discussion on the part of John's disciples with a Jew about purification. The heavenly bodies are held in their orbits. (Jn 14:10). Jesus is God's glory; therefore, we see with amazing clarity that the glory of God consists not in crushing men and reducing them to abject servitude, but in serving them and loving them and in the end dying for them. We hear our Master saying again the old, deep, mysterious words: "I and my Father are one. (Jn 12:45), Phillip queried Jesus "show us the Father and it is enough for us (Jn 14:8), Jesus replied that "He who has seen Me has seen the Father" (Jn14:9) Explaining that "the Father is in Me" and "the words that I say to you I do not speak on My own initiative, but the Father abiding in Me does His works." As we listen and obey what God says in His Son (in His Word, the Scripture), He will sustain us through any trial, bringing us to the desired end He has for us --to be conformed to the image of Jesus Christ. âIf Messiah is Davidâs Son,â Jesus asked, âthen how could Messiah also be Davidâs Lord?â, There is only one answer to this question. "), Rhema as used here in Hebrews 1:3 to refer to active and powerful word. But our Lord has completed His atonement, and now, âthere no longer remains a sacrifice for sinsâ (Heb 10:26), for there no longer remains sin to be purged. Now Christ, our great High Priest, having, once for all, offered Himself as the sacrifice for sin, has now gone into the most holy place, and there He sits on the right hand of the Majesty on high. Hebrews 12:2 fixing our eyes on Jesus, the Author and Perfecter of faith, Who for the joy set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. For example at Mt Sinai "the appearance of the glory (LXX = doxa) of Jehovah was like a consuming fire on the mountain top" (Ex 24:17). Wonder of wonders!" Hebrews 1:1-3 New International Version (NIV) God’s Final Word: His Son. A child may ask that question, but so does an astronomer. "He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit" of Christ would say to us today! Jesus then is the preeminent "Expositor" declaring the Father's glory thoroughly and particularly. The surpassing dignity of the Son of God in his Divine person, and in his creating and mediatorial work. (see notes Hebrews 9:12; 9:13; 9:14; 9:26). Dunghills are sweet compared with these abominations; what a degrading task it seems for Christ to undertakeâthe purging of our sins! Of course, we are talking figuratively now, and you must not interpret this literally. Hence the apostle passes to the glory of the person of Christ, who was able to execute such an office: He was the brightness of his Father's glory, and the express image of his person, Hebrews 1:3. But I can testify that Jesus is good and that Jesus truly upholds all things by the word of His power. Read Introduction to Hebrews 3 who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, . They were filled with the thought that the One who had created the world would also be the One who redeemed it. The LORD (Jehovah) says to my Lord (Adonai): "Sit at My right hand, Until I make Thine enemies a footstool for Thy feet. (The Pulpit Commentary ), Wuest adds that "The word apaugasma is not preceded by the definite article, which fact makes the term highly descriptive of character or nature." When He had made purification of sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high; Hebrews 3:14 For we have become partakers of Christ, if we hold fast the beginning of our assurance firm until the end; Hebrews 11:1 Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. (Read Hebrews 1:1-3) God spake to his ancient people at sundry times, through successive generations, and in divers manners, as he thought proper; sometimes by personal directions, sometimes by dreams, sometimes by visions, sometimes by … a charge against one (Mt 27:14 Jesus "did not answer him with regard to even a single charge" - rhema), a message (Ro 10:8 "But what does it say? It is only befitting, then, that the unsinning sons of light should worship him; and as we hear the command issued, "Let all the angels of God worship him," we are still further impressed by the immense distance between their nature and his. Zondervan Publishing, Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. "); Ezek. Continue reading commentary on Hebrews 3:7-19 and Hebrews 4:1-11. (Col 1:17-note). Hence, on one occasion, the Jews sought to kill him, because he said that God was his Father, making himself equal with God (John v. i8). 3 who is the refulgence of his glory,. Go, for I am too old to have a husband. The cross was a stumbling block to Jews, but the writer does not apologize for it. This is not the rest following toil, but the rest of satisfaction in a finished work (cf "once for all" or "for all time" in the following verses - Heb 7:27-note; He 9:12-note, He 10:10-note, He 10:12-note; He 10:14-note John 19:30), This posture indicates that the work of redemption has been completed. Better. Just as when you look at the impression, you see exactly what the seal which made it is like, so when you look at Jesus you see exactly what God is like. 3 By faith we understand that the universe was formed at God’s command, so that what is seen was not made out of what was visible. Biblical Commentary (Bible study) Hebrews 1:1-12 EXEGESIS: THE CONTEXT: The author identified neither himself nor the people to whom he was writing. For time and eternity, Jesus is all we need. And remember that with our almighty God, nothing is impossible.âVernon C Grounds (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Moody Press), MacDonald nicely summarizes the purifying work of the Son writing that "The Creator and the Sustainer became the Sin-bearer. God has many sons, but only one Son. When He had made purification of sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high. 11:6; Job 22:20 ("and their abundance the fire has consumed"), possessions. Luke gives us a correct sense of the power of God's word declaring that, No (absolute negation) word (rhema - spoken word) from God shall be void of power. " Jesus gives a correct opinion of all that God is, so that to see Jesus is to see God, for in Jesus Himself is the out shining of the majesty of the Father. WHEN HE HAD MADE PURIFICATION OF SINS: poiesamenos (AMPMSN) katharismon tÃ´n hamartiÃ´n: through himself having made a cleansing of our sins (YLT), when He had by Himself purged our sins (KJV), having given Himself as an offering making clean from sins (BBE), The Son made people clean from their sins (ICB), effected in person the reconciliation between God and man (Phillips), He is the one who died to cleanse us and clear our record of all sin (TLB). Notice that Christ sits in the place of honor. Commentaries on Hebrews. In what follows the author seems to live in the world of the Old Testament rather than his own. Each volume uniquely combines the insights of an experienced Bible exegete (trained in interpretation) and a homiletician (trained in preaching). But they shall be made his footstool, by humble submission, or by utter destruction. He is both âthe root and the offspring of Davidâ (Rev 22:6-note). You might argue from the second, that as the impression might be made on a very inferior material, so Christ's nature was a very unworthy vehicle of the divine glory; but this mistake is corrected by the first, for a beam is of the same texture as the sun. In beholding the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Lord Jesus Christ, we behold the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Father, John 14:7; the fulness of the Godhead dwells, not typically, or in a figure, but really, in him. If you are a Bible student or teacher, you can discuss each week’s commentary and lesson at the International Bible Lesson Forum. He shall never be a defeated and disappointed Savior. Nothing like this was ever said to angel, how-ever exalted in character or devoted in service. My youngest son almost died. But, on his forehead, the high priest wore a golden plate, upon which was deeply engraved, in Hebrew letters, the inscription, âHoliness to [or of] Yahweh.â Dr. Owen thinks there is a reference, in this ârepresentation of his essenceââthis cut-out inscription of God, as it wereâto that which was on the forehead of the high priest, and which represented the glorious wholeness or holiness of Yahweh, which is His great glory. Let a part of our private and public devotion be ever dedicated to the praise of Jesus; when we shall break forth into some hymn, or psalm, or spiritual song, singing and praising Christ with angels and archangels and all the hosts of the redeemed. a. My wife is still suffering the throes of anorexia. —Better, having become. He is Davidâs Lord and He is Davidâs Son. Hebrews 1:3 And He is (PAPMSN) the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature, and upholds (PAPMSN) all things by the word of His power. For it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins" (He 10:4-note), "but when Christ appeared as a High Priestâ¦ He entered through the greater and more perfect tabernacle (in contrast to the earthly tabernacle and the Holy of holies that the Levitical priests entered once a year on the Day of Atonement) and not through the blood of goats and calves, but through His own bloodâ¦ (into) the holy place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption. Part of the series – Letter to the Hebrews. âLove so amazing, so divine, demands my soul, my life, my all,â as Isaac Wattsâ hymn says." The problem was he called from a cemetery with a rope swung over a tree limb and the other end around his neck. Majesty (3172) (megalosune from mÃ©gas = great, strong) refers to a state of greatness, importance, prominence and specifically as here is a title for God Who is characterized by majesty and greatness. Note He did not ask them as He had His disciples "Who do you say that I am" Mt 16:15 for the Pharisees were neither sympathetic or honest in their assessment of His credentials) They said to Him, âThe son of David.â (the Pharisees knew that the Messiah must come from the line of David as His "son" and no doubt they could have quoted several OT passages to support their answer as eg 2Sa 7:12-13) He said to them (and in Jesus' second question He quotes Ps110:1 which every orthodox Jewish scholar interpreted as a reference to the Messiah. When he had accomplished purification from sins, (2Cor 4:6). Hebrews 1:3 tells us that it is Jesus who upholds all things by the word of His power. (ii) The destined empire belongs to Jesus. Shall guard His children well. The glory of His person and nature, gave to his sufferings such merit as was a full satisfaction to the honour of God, who suffered an infinite injury and affront by the sins of men. To say it another way the work of purification was done by Christ personally, and was not something which He designated to be done by some other agent. As a figure of speech charakter described a distinctive mark "impressed" on a person, by which he is distinguished from others. David records a remarkable conversation between two Persons of the Godhead. If He did not speak it into continued existence, it would go back into the nothingness from which it sprung. (see note Hebrews 10:4), In the OT David prophesies and quotes the Father inviting the Son to, Sit at My right hand until I make Thy enemies a footstool for Thy feet." The Person of the Son is thus represented, not as of one apart from God, irradiated by His glory, but as Himself the sheen of his glory." (see notes Ephesians 2:8; 2:9), MacDonald summarizes this section by noting that "In following the pathway of our Lord from creation to Calvary and then to glory, it seems we have quite lost sight of the prophets. Good news indeed for those who by faith receive it as a gift and not by trying to earn it. Read Introduction to Hebrews. The things created by Christ are now being sustained, or conserved, or held together by Him. (see note Hebrews 1:13), This Old Testament quotation in the preceding verse is from Ps110:1 which reads. The New Testament writers never doubted his ultimate triumph. Faith is the title-deed of things hoped for. It was his right. (Wuest's Commentary on Hebrews), Expositor's comments on radiance that "In the Arian controversy (Ed note: Arius taught that the Son was a created being, inferior to God the father in nature and dignity though the first and noblest of all created beings) this designation of the Son was appealed to as proving that He is eternally generated and exists not by an act of the Fatherâs will but essentiallyâ¦ As the sun cannot exist or a lamp burn without radiating light, so God is essentially Father and Son.â (Expositor's Bible Commentary. (He 9:26-note cf other uses in Hebrews of this key idea of "Himself" = Heb 2:14, 9:14, 9:25, 26- see notes He 2:14, 9:14; 9:25; 26), Vincent notes that "In carrying on all things toward their destined end of conformity to the divine archetype, the Son must confront and deal with the fact of sin, which had thrown the world into disorder, and drawn it out of Godâs order. 1:9, it refers to the actual purification accomplished in man, while in Heb. He holds everything together with his powerful word. We are so apt to concentrate our thoughts on ourselves; and to thank for what we have received. "Thou art worthy to receiveâ¦ honor. The old fable speaks of the Augean stables, foul enough to have poisoned a nation, which Hercules cleansedâbut our sins were fouler than that. Then the LORD said, "Behold, there is a place by Me, and you shall stand there on the rock and it will come about, while My glory is passing by, that I will put you in the cleft of the rock and cover you with My hand until I have passed by. (NLT), He received the highest position, the one next to the Father in heaven (GWT), He sat down in heaven at the right-hand side of God, the Supreme Power (TEV). 26:11, an outpost or garrison: in Deut. Nothing is excluded from the scope of the Son's sustaining, supporting, upholding activity. The oceans are held in their beds. Listen to Jesus. Spurgeon - Just think of it. [1.] Of the worship offered him in catacombs, or in their secret meetings, amongst dens and caves, paganism was necessarily ignorant. But the behavior and exclamations of the servants of Jesus, arraigned before heathen tribunals, and exposed to the most agonizing deaths, were matters of public notoriety. 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